Lesson 8 Trading standards贸易标准
First listen and then answer the following question.
What makes trading between rich countries difficult?
Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables. No, say the American: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs, that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries. It is not just farmers who are complaining. An electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU's okay before is hits the market in Europe.
布鲁塞尔的官员说，在美国屠宰的鸡不适于用来装点欧洲的餐桌。不，美国人说，我们的家禽很好，只是我们使用了另一种清洗方式。当前，是各国管理条例上的差 异，而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。并不仅仅是农民在抱怨。一把符合欧洲联盟安全标准的电动剃须刀必须得到美国检测人员的认可，方可在美国市场上销 售；而美国制造的透析仪也要得到欧盟的首肯才能进入欧洲市场。
As it happens, a razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans. So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test many products. They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28TH. Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.
碰巧在欧洲使用安全的剃须刀不大可能使美国人触电身亡，因此，大西洋两岸的企业都在问，当一套测试可以解决问题时，为什么需要两套呢？政治家在原则上同意 了， 因此，美国和欧洲一直在寻求达成协议，以便为许多产品取消双重检查。他们希望尽早达成协议，为5月28日举行的美国和欧洲贸易的最高通级会议作准备。然谈 判代表持乐观态度，但协议细节如此复杂，他们所面临的困难很可能使他们无法取得一致。
Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements. The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and them hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing. The EU -- following fine continental traditions -- wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and perhaps extended to other countries.
为什么呢？困难之一是起草这些协议。美国人很愿意就医疗器械的标准达成一个协议，然后推敲出不同的合同，用以涵盖 -- 比如说 -- 电子产品和药品的生产。欧洲人遵循优良的大陆传统，则希望就普遍的原则取得一致，而这些原则适用于许多不同产品，同时可能延伸到其它国家。
New words and expressions 生词和短语
Notes on the text课文注释
1 Chinckens slaughtered in ... to grace European tabes.在这句话中引用了布鲁塞尔官员的评论，却没有放在引号之中。这种方式常用于报刊文章，对读者的直接影响更大。在claim officials in Brussels中，动词claim置于名词之前。
2 it is differences in national regulations... between rich countries.是各国管理条例上的差异，而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。这是一个it引导的强调句。put sand in the wheels of, 阻碍，阻扰。
3 So ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic , why have two lots of tests where one would do?这是另一个没有引导的直接引语的例子。注意why have two... do中的语序，这是非常口语化的直接引语的语序。
Lesson 8 课后练习和答案Exercises and Answer