Lesson 7 Bats蝙蝠
First listen and then answer the following question.
In what way does echo-location in bats play an utilitarian role?
Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, and we have only to turn to that extraordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role.
To get a full appreciation of what this means we must turn first to some recent human inventions. Everyone knows that if he shouts in the vicinity of a wall or a mountainside, an echo will come back. The further off this solid obstruction, the longer time will elapse for the return of the echo. A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom, and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of the echoes, the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated. So was born the echo-sounding apparatus, now in general use in ships. Every solid object will reflect a sound, varying according to the size and nature of the object. A shoal of fish will do this. So it is a comparatively simple step from locating the sea bottom to locating a shoal of fish. With experience, and with improved apparatus, it is now possible not only to locate a shoal but to tell if it is herring, cod, or other well-known fish, by the pattern of its echo.
要透彻理解这句话的意义，我们应先回顾一下人类最近的几项发明。大家都知道，在墙壁或山腰附近发出的喊声，就会听到回声。固体障碍物越远。回声返回所用时 间就越长。敲打船体所发了的声音会从海底传回来，测出回声间隔的时间，便可算出该处海洋的深度。这样就产生了目前各种船舶上普遍应用的回声探测仪。任何固 体者反射声音，反射的声音因物体的大小和性质的不同而不同。鱼群也反射声音。从测定海深到测定鱼群，这一进展比较容易。根据经验和改进了的仪器，不仅能够 确定鱼群的位置，而且可以根据鱼群回声的特点分辨出是鲱鱼、鳕鱼，这是人们所熟悉的其他鱼。
It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles -- or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar.
New words and expressions生词和短语
Notes on the text课文注释
1 Not all sounds made by animals serve as language,动物发出的声音不全是作语言交流。此句采用了部分否定，既不是否定所有的动物，而只是一部分。serve as,作...之用。
2 turn to,求助于。
3 play a role in,在...方面起作用。
4 in the vicinity of,在...的附近。
5 So was born the echo-sounding appararus,就这样诞生了回声探测仪。这是一个倒装句，主要是为了避免因主语过长而使全句失去平衡，同时也为了使apparatus的定语now in general use in ships紧挨着名词。in general use,普遍使用。
6 steer clear of,避开。
Lesson 7 课后练习和答案Exercises and Answer